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GERMAN RESEARCH
HELPS PAGE

I also refer to this as "my cheat sheet", meaning I don't speak or read German, but this sheet gets me through most German genealogy documents.  Or at least I get the main thought of the document! <grin>  I collected these from various books and places online years ago when I worked at a FHC and thought I would post them in the hopes they might help someone else. 
If you have any helps or tips to add, please send them!  I'd like to do a page similar to this for the various languages we encounter in our Shawano research.  Any suggestions?
(And, if you had 8 years of a parochial school and have the urge to stand up when you hear the midi on the page, that's OK, too!  <grin>
GERMAN GENEALOGY WORDLIST 
and SURNAME MEANINGS
GERMAN NAMING PATTERNS
GERMAN  SPECIAL CHARACTERS
OLD 1680 PRUSSIAN MAP (NICE!!)    (off-site)
ASSORTED MAPS OF GERMANY   (off-site)
GERMAN GENEALOGY WORDLIST and SURNAME MEANINGS
(Thanks to the folks at LDS Family History Library, German>English Dictionaries, and various online resources)
Aachen/Achen Aachen/Aix-la-Chapelle (German city)
ab =  from, since
Abend =  evening
abends = in the evening
Abend/Abendroth = evening/dusk
aber =  but
abgestorben =  deceased
absterben =  to die, to die off
Abt = abbott
acht =  eight
achte =  eighth
achtundzwanzigste =  twenty-eighth
achtzehn = eighteen
achtzehnhundert = eighteen hundred
achtzehnte = eighteenth
achtzig = eighty
achtzigste = eightieth
Ackerman(n) = farmer
Adel = gentry, nobleman
Adler = eagle
a.D. = außer Dienst  formerly employed, retired
adoptiert = adopted
Ahnen = ancestors
Ahnentafel = pedigree chart
Akten = documents
ALBRECHT = ALBRIGHT
alle = all
allhier = in this place
alt = old
Altmann = old man
ALT = AULT
Altbürger = full citizen
Alter = age
Altersschwäche = weakness of old age
ältest = eldest
alt-katholisch = old Catholic
Amman = bailiff, magistrate
Amsel = blackbird
Amt = office, district
Anbauer = peasant
andere = other, next
Angeber = informant
angeblich = alleged, assumed
Anmerkungen = remarks
Anspänner = farmer
apostolisch = Apostolic
April = April
Arbeiter = laborer, worker
Archiv = archive
arm = poor
Armut = poverty
Arzt = physician/doctor
auch = also, too
auf = on, upon, at
aufbieten = post banns
Aufenthaltserlaubnis = residence permit
Aufenthaltsort = residence
Aufgebot = publication of banns
August = August
aus = from, out of
außen = outside
äußere = outside, outward, external
außerehelich = illegitimate
Auswanderer = emigrant
Auswanderung = emigration
Auszehrung = consumption or emaciation 
Auszug = extract
Bach = brook
BACH = BAUGH
BACHER = BAUGHER / BAUGHMAN
Bachmeier = farmer by the brook
Bäcker =  baker
Bad = spa, resort
Badeort = spa, health resort
Bader/Baader = bath, spa keeper
Baecker/Becker = baker
Baer/Bar = bear
BAER = BLAIR, BARE
Band = volume
Baptist = Baptist
Baron = baron
Barth = beard
Bauer = farmer, peasant
BAUER = BOWERS / FARMER
Baum = tree
BAUMANN = BOWMAN
Bayern = Bavaria
Bayer/Beyer = Bavarian
Bd. = Band  volume
Beamter = official, registrar
Beck(er)= baker
Beckenbauer = basin/bowl maker
BECKER = BAKER
beerdigt = buried
Beerdigung = burial, interment
beglaubigt = certified, attested
begraben = buried
Begräbnis = burial
BEHN = BEAN
Beich/Beike = slope
Beichte = confession
beide = both
Beilage = supplement
Bekannte(r)= acquaintance
Bekehrung = conversion
Belege = proof, documentation
Bemerkungen = remarks
Berg = hill, mountain
BERGER = BARGER
Bergman(n)= miner
BERNHARD = BARNHART
Beruf = occupation, profession
Beschreibung = description
Besitzer = possessor, proprietor, owner
bestätigt = confirmed, verified
bestattet = buried
bettlägerig = bedridden
Bettler = beggar
BETZ = BETTS
Bevölkerungsregister = population register
bevorstehend = previously mentioned
BEYER = BOYER
Bezirk = district
Bieber = beaver (industrious)
Biermann = beer man (brewer)
Biographie = biography
Bischof = bishop
Bistum = diocese
Blattern = smallpox
Blau = blue
blutend = bleeding
Blütenmonat = May
Blutsverwandschaft = blood relationship
Boehm/Bohm = of Bohemia
BOEHM = BEAM
Böhmen = Bohemia
Bootsmann = bargeman, boatman
Böttcher = cooper, barrel maker
BOTTCHER = COOPER
Brandt = fire, land cleared by fire
Brauer = brewer
BRAUN = BROWN
Bräune = diptheria
Braut = bride
Bräutigam = bridegroom
BREITENBACH = BRIDENBAUGH
Brücke = bridge
BRUCKNER = BRICKNER
Bruder = brother
Bub = boy
Buch = book
Büdner = cottager
BRUPBACHER = BRUBAKER
Burg = castle, fortress
Bürger/Burger= burgher, citizen, citizens
Bürgerbuch = citizen register
Bürgermeister =  mayor
Busch/Bosch = bush
Büttner = cooper, barrel maker
ca. = circa  about
Chirurg = surgeon
Christmonat = December
Colonist = settler, tenant farmer
copulieren = to marry
d. = der, dem, des, die, das  the
Dachdecker = roofer
Daecher/Decker = roofer, tyler
dänisch = Danish
das = the
daselbst = residing in this place
Datum = date
Dekanat = deanery
dem, den = the
der = the, of the
derselbe = the same
des = of the
deutsch = German
Deutschland = Germany
Dezember = December
Dick = fat person
die = the
Diederich/Dietrich = skeleton key; ruler
Diener = servant
Dienst = service, employment
Dienstag = Tuesday
Dienstmagd = servant girl
dieser = this, these
Domäne = domain
Donnerstag = Thursday
Dorf = village
dort = there
Drechsler/Dreher = turner
DREHER = TURNER
drei = three
dreißig = thirty
dreißigste = thirtieth
dreiundzwanzigste = twenty-third
dreizehn = thirteen
dreizehnte = thirteenth
Drescher thresher
Dresdner/Dresner of Dresden
dritte = third
Duerr/Durr dry, thin, drought
Duplikat = duplicate record
durch = through
Durchfall = diarrhea
DURR = DERR
ebenda = at the same place
EBERHARD = EVERHART
Eberhardt/Eberhart strong as a boar
Ebersbach/Ebersbacher = boar brook
Egger/Eggers = harrow, plow man
Ehe = marriage
Ehebrecher = adulterer
Ehebruch = adultery
Ehefrau = wife, housewife
Ehehindernis = hinderance to marriage
ehel. = ehelich  legitimate
eheleiblich = legitimate
Eheleute = married couple
ehelich = legitimate
ehemals = formerly
Ehemann = husband
Ehescheidung = divorce
Eheschließung = marriage
Ehestand = married state
Eheverkündigungen = marriage banns
Eheversprechen,Eheverspruch = betrothal, engagement
EHRHARD = EARHART
Ehrlichmann = honest man
Eichel = acorn, oak

Eichelberger = of the oak hill
EICHLI = OAKLEY
Eichmann = oak man
Eidam (Eidmann)= son-in-law
Eiffel = German mountain range
Eigentümer = proprietor
ein, eine = a, one, an
Einbürgerung = naturalization
Einlieger = landless farm laborer
eins = one
Einsender = informant, declarant
eintausendachthundert = eighteen hundred
eintausendfünfhundert = fifteen hundred
eintausendneunhundert = nineteen hundred
eintausendsechshundert = sixteen hundred
eintausendsiebenhundert = seventeen hundred
einunddreissig = thirty-one
einunddreissigste = thirty-first
einundzwanzigste = twenty-first
Einwanderer = immigrant
Einwanderung = immigration
Einwilligung = permission
Einwohner = inhabitant
einzige = only
Eisenberg = iron mountain
Eisenhauer (-hower)= iron hewer, miner
Eiterbeule = abscess
elf = eleven
elfte = eleventh
Eltern = parents
Engel = angel
Enkel = grandson
Enkelin = granddaughter
Enkelkind = grandchild
eod(em)= the same
Epilepsie = epilepsy
er = he
Erbschaft = inheritance
erhalten = received, receive
erklärt = declared
Erlassung = dispensation, permission
Ermächtigung = authorization
Ernting = August
errechnet = approximated, calculated
erschien = appeared
erste = first
erstgeboren = firstborn
ertrank, ertrunken = drowned
erzeugt = begat
es = it
ESCHLIMANN = ESHELMAN
evangelisch = evangelical

Faber = smith (Latin)
Fabrikant = manufacturer
Faerber/Farber = dyer
Familie = family
Familienbuch = family register
Familienforschung = genealogical research
Familienregister = family register
Färber = dyer
Fassbinder = cooper, barrel maker
Fäule = cancer
Faust = fist
Februar = February
Fehlgeburt = miscarriage
FEHR = FAIR
Feierabend = time off, non-work hours
Fenstermacher = window maker
Festtag = feast day, festival day, holy day
Festung = fortress
Fieber = fever
Fiedler = fiddler
Findling = foundling
Fink/Finkel = finch
Firmung = confirmation
Fischer = fisher
Flecken = hamlet, also measles or spots
Fleckfieber = spotted fever, typhus
Fleischer = butcher
Fleischhauer = butcher
Fl. = Florin = standard monetary unit
Flüchtling = refugee, deserter
Fluß = river
Foerster = forester
folgende = following, next
Forst = forest
Fraisen = convulsions, epilepsy, seizures, spasms
Frankfurter = of Frankfurt
Frankreich = France
Frau = Mrs., wife, woman
Fräulein = Miss, unmarried woman
Freibauer = farmer who owns his own land
Freiherr = baron
Freitag/Freytag = Friday
fremd = foreign, strange
Freud = joy
Freund = friend
Frei/Frey = free (man)
FRIEDRICH = FREDERICK
Friedhof = cemetery
FROHLICH = FRAILEY, FRALEY
Frueh/Freeh = early (riser)
Fruehauf = up early
früher = former, formerly
Fuchs = fox
FUCHS = FOX
FUEHRE = FERY
Fuerst/Furst = prince
Fuhrmann = carter, driver
fünf = five
fünfte = fifth
fünfundzwanzigste = twenty-fifth
fünfzehn = fifteen
fünfzehnhundert = fifteen hundred
fünfzehnte = fifteenth
fünfzig = fifty
fünfzigste = fiftieth
für = for
Fürst = count
Fürstentum = principality
Gärtner = gardener
GAERTNER = GARDNER
Gastwirt = innkeeper
Gatte = husband
Gattin = wife
geb. = geboren = born, maiden name
geben, gab = given, gave
Gebiet = region, area, zone
geboren = born, maiden name
Gebühren = fees
Geburt = birth
Geburtsort = place of birth
Geburtsschein = birth certificate
Geburtsurkunde = birth certificate
gegen = against, towards
geheiratet = married
gehört = belongs (to)
GEHRING, GORING = GAIRING, GEHRIG
Geistliche(r)= clergyman
Gelbsucht = jaundice
Geld = money
Gemahl(in)= spouse, husband, wife
Gemeinde = community, municipality, parish, town
Gemeindemann = village official, village resident
Gemeindsmann = citizen with full rights
gemelli = twins
genannt = named, alias, called
Genealogie = genealogy
Gerber = tanner
GERBER = CARVER
Gericht = court
Gerichtsmann = juryman
Gerichtsschreiber = court clerk
Gerichtsverwandter = member of the judicial court
Gerste/Gersten = barley
gesagt = said, stated
Geschichte = history
geschieden = divorced
Geschlecht = gender, sex, lineage
Geschlechterbücher = lineage books
Geschlechtsname = surname
Geschwister = siblings, brothers and sisters
Geschwulst = swelling, tumor
Geselle = journeyman
Gesellschaft = society, group
Gesetz = law
gesetzlich = legal
gest. = gestorben = died
gestern = yesterday
gestorben = died
get. = getauft = baptized, christened
Getaufte = person who was baptized
getr. = getraut  married
Getraute = married couple
Gevatter = godfather
Gewerbe = trade, occupation
Gicht = gout, arthritis
Gilde = guild
Glaube = belief, faith
Glauben = religious affiliation
gleich = same, alike, similar, right away
Gloeckner/Glockner = bell man
GOERING = CERING
Gottschalk = God's servant
Graf = count (nobleman), earl
Grafschaft = county
Grenze = border
GOS, GOES = GASE
Grossmann = the big one
groß = big, great, large
Großeltern = grandparents
großjährig = of age
Großmutter = grandmother
Großneffe = great-nephew
Großnichte = great-niece
Großvater = grandfather
Gru(e)newald = green forest
Grundbuch = land register
Gulden = standard monetary unit, florin
Gut = property, estate
GUT, GUTH = GOOD, GOODE
gut = good
haben = to have
HAINTZ = HAINES
halb = half
halb drei = half three = 2:30 (time)
halb eins = half one = 12:30 (time)
halb zwei = half two = 1:30 (time)
Händler = trader, merchant, peddler
Hartung = January
Haupt- = chief, main
Haus = house
Hausfrau = housewife
Häusler = cottager
Hausmädchen = housemaid
Hebamme = midwife
Heilquelle = spa, bath
Heimat = home, native place, homeland
Heimatschein = domicile certificate
Heimatsort = place of birth, home town
HEINRICH = HENRY
HEINTZ = HINES
Heirat = marriage
heiraten = to marry
Heiratsantrag = marriage intentions
Heiratsbelege = marriage supplements
Heiratskontrakt = marriage contracts
Heiratsprotokolle = marriage records
Heiratsschein = marriage certificate
heißt = is named
Hektar = hectare (10,000 square meters or 2.47 U.S. acres)
Hellmann = light man
Heraldik = heraldry
Herkunftsort = place of origin
HERMANN - HARMANN
Herr = Mister, Lord, lord
Herrschaft = estate, dominion
Hertz/Herz = heart
Hertzog/Herzog = duke
Herzogtum = duchy
Hessische = Hessian
Heuerling = dayworker, hireling
Heuert, Heumonat = July
heute = today
hier = here
hiesiger Ort = this place
Himmel (-reich)= heaven
Hinterbliebene = survivors
hinterlassen = surviving, left behind
Hirsch = buck, deer
Hirt = herdsman
HIRTZEL = HARTZEL
hitziges Fieber = burning fever, high fever
hoch = high, tall
Hochzeit = wedding
Hof = courtyard, farm, yard, estate
HOFER, HOEFER = HAFER
Hofprediger = chaplain
HOFSTETTER = HOSTETTER
Holländer = Dutchman, dairykeeper
Hornung = February
HUBER = HOOVER
Hüfner = farmer
Hufschmied = blacksmith
Hügel = hill
hundert = hundred
Hurenkind = illegitimate child
Husten = cough
ihr = their, her
im = in the
immer = always
in = in
Inhalt = content
innerhalb = inside of
Innung = guild
Instmann = tenant farmer
ist = is
Jäger = hunter
JAGER = HUNTER, YEAGER
Jaeger = hunter, huntsman
Jahr = year
Jahrestag = anniversary
Jahreszeit = season
Jahrhundert = century
jährlich = annual, yearly
Jahrzehnt = decade
Jänner = January
Januar = January
jeder (jede, jedes)= each, every
Jgfr. = Jungfrau, Jungfer = maiden, virgin, unmarried woman
jüdisch = Jewish
Jugend = youth, adolescence
Juli = July
Julmonat = December
jung = young
JUNG = YOUNG
Junge = boy, a youth
Junggeselle = bachelor
Jüngling = bachelor, young man
Junker = nobleman, squire
Juni = June
Kaiser = emperor
Kalb = calf
KALB = CULP
Kantor = choirmaster, organist 
Kappel = chapel
Karte = map 
Kartei = card index 
Kaestner/Kastner = cabinet maker
Käthner = cottager 
katholisch = Catholic 
kaufen = to buy 
Kaufmann = merchant 
KEHL = KALE
kein = no, none 
Keuchhusten = whooping cough 
Kiefer = cooper, barrel maker 
Kind = baby, child 
Kindbettfieber = childbed fever 
Kinder = children 
Kirche = church 
Kirchenältester = churchwarden, church elder, vestryman 
Kirchenbuch = parish register 
Kirchengemeinde = parish 
Kirchenpfleger = churchwarden 
Kirchenrodel = parish register 
Kirchensprengel = parish 
Kirchenvorsteher = churchwarden 
kirchlich = pertaining to church 
Kirchrat = member of a church council 
Kirchspiel = parish 
Kirsch = cherry
K.K. = kaiserlich königlich = royal imperial 
KLAUSE = CLOUSE
klein = little, small, short 
KLEIN = KLINE, CLINE, LITTLE, SMALL
Klug/Kluge = smart, clever
Knabe = boy 
Knecht = servant, farmhand 
Koch = cook
Koehler/Kohler = charcoal-maker
Koenig/Konig = king
Kommunikant = communicant 
Kommunion = communion 
Konfirmation = confirmation 
König = king 
KONIG = KING
KONIGSAMEN = KINGSEED
königlich = royal 
Königreich = kingdom 
Kopulation = marriage 
kopulieren = to marry 
Kossät, Kossath = cottager 
Kötter (Kötner) = small farmer, cottager 
KNEISSLI = KNISELY
Krämer = grocer, small retailer 
KRAEMER = KRAMER, CRAMER
Krämpfe = cramps, convulsions 
Krankheit = disease, sickness 
Krause = curly haired
Krebs = cancer 
KREBS = CRIPPS
Kreis = county, district 
Krieg = war 
Küfer = cooper, barrel maker
Kuester/Kuster = sexton 
Kuhhirte = cowherd 
Kuhn/Kunze = councilman; smart
KUHN = KEEN
KUMMEL = KIMMEL
KUNZI = KINSEY
Kupferschmied = coppersmith 
Kurort = spa, bath 
KURRER = KERR
Kurz = the short one
Kusine = female cousin 
Küster = sexton 
Land = land, country
Landarbeiter = farmhand
Landkarte = map
Landwirt = farmer
Lang = long
LANG = LONG
lassen = to let, leave, allow
lebendig = living
LEBENGUT = LEIBENGOOD, LIVINGOOD
ledig = single, unmarried
legitimiert = made legitimate, legitimized
Lehmann/Lemann = serf, fief man
Lehrer = teacher
Lehrling = apprentice
Leiche = corpse, body
Leichenpredigt = funeral sermon
Leinenweber = linen weaver
LIESS = LEASE
Lenz = spring (season)
letzte Ölung = last rites, extreme unction
letzte Salbung = last rites, extreme unction
Letzter = latter, last
letzter Wille = last will
links = left
Loewe/Lowe = lion
Luft = air
Lungenentzündung = pneumonia
Lungenschwindsucht = consumption, tuberculosis
Lustig = happy person
lutherisch = Lutheran
Mädchen, Mädel = girl
Magd = maiden, maid, servant girl
Mägdlein = girl
Mahler/Mehler = grinder, miller
Mai = May
Maler = painter
Mann = husband, man
männlich = male
Markt = market
März = March
Masern = measles
Matrikel = register
Maurer = mason, bricklayer
Mauer = wall
Meier/Meyer = dairy farmer; landowner
Meister = master
Mennoniten = Mennonites
MESSERSCHMIDT = MERRERSMITH
Metzger = butcher
MEYER = MAYER, MYERS
Militär = military
minderjährig = underaged, minor
MISWCHLER = MISHLER
mit = with, via, by
Mitglied = member
Mittag = midday
mittags = at noon
Mitternacht = midnight
Mittwoch = Wednesday
Moench/Muench = monk
MOHR = MOORE
Monat = month
Montag = Monday
Morgen = morning, tomorrow
Morgen (morgen)= measure of land, 0.6 to 0.9 acres
morgens = in the morning
Mühle = mill
Mueller/Muller = miller
mündlich = verbal, verbally
MULLER = MILLER
MUSSER = MERCER
Mutter = mother
nach = to, after, according to
Nachbar = neighbor
Nachbarschaft = neighborhood
nachgelassen = surviving
Nachlaß = estate, inheritance
Nachmittag = afternoon
nachmittags = in the afternoon
nächst(e)= next
Nacht = night
Nadel = Needle
Nagel = Nail
Näherin = seamstress
Name = name
nat. = natus, nata = born
Naumann/Neumann = new man
neben = next to
Nebenfrau = concubine
Neffe = nephew
Nervenfieber = nervous fever, typhus
neu = new
NEU = NEY
Neudorf/Neustadt = new town (Newton)
NEUMANN = NEWMAN
neun = nine
neunte = ninth
neunundzwanzigte = twenty-ninth
neunzehn = nineteen
neunzehnhundert = nineteen hundred
neunzehnte = nineteenth
neunzig = ninety
neunzigste = ninetieth
nicht = not
Nichte = niece
nichts = nothing
nie = never
nieder = lower
Niederländisch = Dutch
N.N. = nomen nescio = name not known
noch = still
noch lebende = still living, surviving
noch nicht = not yet
Nord = north
Notizen = notices, miscellaneous records
Nottaufe = emergency baptism
November = November
Nummer = number
nur = only
Nussbaum = nut tree
NUSSLI = NISSLEY
ober = upper, over
ober- = chief, head
OBERHOLTZER = Overholt
oder = or
öffentlich bekanntmachen = publish, make known publicly
oft = often
Oheim = uncle
ohne = without
Oktober = October
Onkel = uncle
Ort = place, town
Ortslexikon = gazetteer
Osten = east
Oster = east, Easter
Osteren = April
Osterhagen = east grove, hedge
Ostermann = eastern man
Ostermonat = April
Ostern = Easter
Österreich = Austria
österreichisch = Austrian
Pabst/Papst = pope
Pächter = leaseholder
Pate = godfather
Paten = godparents
Pest = plague
Pfaff = cleric, parson
Pfalz = Palatinate
Pfarramt = parish office
Pfarrbuch = parish register
Pfarrei = parish
Pfarrer = parish minister, pastor
Pfeffer = pepper
Pfeifer/Pfeiffer = piper
PFEIFFER = PEIFFER, PFEIFER, PIPER
Pflegekind = foster child
Pflegesohn = foster son
Pflegetochter = foster daughter
Platz = place (location)
Pocken = pox, smallpox
Polen = Poland
polnisch = Polish
PORTNER = BORDNER
preußisch = Prussian
Priester = priest
PRINTZ = PRINCE
Prinz = prince
Prinzessin = princess
Probst/Propst = provost
protestantisch = Protestant
Provinz = province
provinzial = provincial
Rathaus = city hall, town hall
Ratsherr = alderman
Ratsmann = councilman, town councilor
Rechnung = account, bill
rechtgläubig = orthodox
reformiert = reformed
Regierungsbezirk = administrative area
Register = register
Reich = empire, kingdom
REICHERT = RICHARDS
REINHARD = REINHART, RINEHART
Reinhard(t) determined
REINOEHL = REINHOLD, REYNOLDS
RIESE = REESER, RESER
REISS = RICE
relicta = widow
relictus = widower
Religion = religion
ren. = renatus, renata  baptized, christened
Rentner = retired person
Rheuma = rheumatism
Richter = judge
Ritter = knight
Rodel = register
ROHRIG = REHRIG
römisch katholisch = Roman Catholic
rot = red
Rotgerber = tanner
Roth = red
ROTH = RHOADS, RHODE, ROOD
Rothbart = red beard
Rothschild = red shield
Rothstein = red stone
Ruhestand = retirement
Ruhr = dysentery
russisch = Russian
Rußland = Russia
S. = Seite = page
s. = siehe = see the following reference
Sachsen = Saxony
Saenger/Sanger = singer
Salbung = anointing
Samstag = Saturday
Sankt = saint
Satertag = Saturday
Sattler = saddler, leather worker
SAUER = SOWERS
SAUTER = SOUDERS
Schäfer = shepherd
SCHAFFER = SHEPHERD
Scharlachfieber = scarlet fever
Schatz = treasure
SCHAUMER = SHIMER
Scheiding = September
Scheidung = divorce
Schein = certificate
Schenkungen = donations
Scherer = shearer, barber
SCHERTZ = SHERTZ
Schiffer = boatman
Schlaganfall = stroke, seizure
Schlagfluß = stroke
SCHLEGEL = SLAGEL
SCHLEIERMACHER = SLAYMAKER
Schloß = castle
Schlosser = locksmith
Schmidt/Schmitt = smith
Schmied = smith
SCHMEISSER = SMYSER
SCHNAEBELI = SHNAVELY, SNAVELEY
Schneider = tailor
SCHNEIDER = TAYLOR
Schreiber = scribe, clerk
Schreiner = cabinetmaker, joiner
SCHNELL = SNELL
Schroeder = dray man
Schuhmacher = shoemaker, cobbler
SCHUMACHER = SHOEMAKER
Schule = school
Schullehrer = schoolteacher
Schultheiss/Schultz = debt broker; mayor
Schultheiß (Schulze) = village mayor, head of town council
SCHULTZ = SHOLES, SHOLTZ, SHULZ, SHULTZ
Schuster = shoemaker, cobbler
Schwab = Swabian
SCHWAB = SWOPE
Schwäche = weakness
Schwager = brother-in-law
Schwägerin = sister-in-law
schwanger = pregnant
schwarz = black
SCHWARZ = BLACK
Schwartkopf = black-haired
SCHWEIGER = SWEIGERT
Schweiz = Switzerland
Schweizer = Swiss; also a dairyman
Schwester = sister
Schwiegermutter = mother-in-law
Schwiegersohn = son-in-law
Schwiegertochter = daughter-in-law
Schwiegervater = father-in-law
Schwindsucht = consumption
S.d. = Sohn des, der = son of
sechs = six
sechste = sixth
sechsundzwanzig = twenty-six
sechsundzwanzigste = twenty-sixth
sechzehnhundert = sixteen hundred
sechzehn = sixteen
sechzehnte = sixteenth
sechzig = sixty
sechzigste = sixtieth
See = lake
Seelen = souls
Seelenregister = church membership list
Seemann = sailor
Seifensieder = soap maker
Seiler = rope maker
SEILER = SAYLOR
sein = to be; his
seit = since
Seite = page
selige = (the) late, blessed
September = September
sich = himself, herself, itself
sie = she, they
Sie = you
sieben = seven
siebente = seventh
siebenundzwanzigste = twenty-seventh
siebte = seventh
siebzehn = seventeen
siebzehnhundert = seventeen hundred
siebzehnte = seventeenth
siebzig = seventy
siebzigste = seventieth
Sieder = soap maker
siehe = see
Sigrist = sexton
sind = are
so = as, so, thus, such
Sohn = son
Söhnlein (Söhnchen)= young son
Soldat = soldier
sollen = should
Sommer = Summer
Sonnabend = Saturday
Sonntag = Sunday
spät = late (p.m.)
SPENGLER = SPANGLER
spur. = spurius, spuria  illegitimate
Staat = state
Staatsangehörigkeit = citizenship, nationality
Staatsarchiv = state archives
Stadt = city
STAHELI = STALEY
Stamm = stump or tree trunk
Stammbaum = family tree, pedigree
Stammler = stutterer
Stand = occupation, status, condition
Standesamt = civil registrar’s office
starb = died
STEIN = STINE, STONE
STEINER = STONER
stellen = place, put, impose
Stellmacher = wheelwright
Sterbefälle = deaths
sterben = to die
Steuer = tax
Stickfluß = asthma
Stiefbruder = half brother, stepbrother
Stiefkind = stepchild
Stiefmutter = stepmother
Stiefschwester = half sister, stepsister
Stiefvater = stepfather
Stillgeburt = stillbirth
Stock = stick, tree trunk
Strauss = bouquet
Straße = street
STRASBACH = STRASBAUGH, STRAUSBAUGH
Stunde = hour
Sucht = sickness, mania, rage
Sus(s)mann = affectionate person
Süden = south
S.v. = Sohn von  son of
T.d. = Tochter des, der = daughter of
T.v. = Tochter von = daughter of
Tabelle = index, table
Tag = day
Tagelöhner = day laborer
Tagner = day laborer
Tal = valley
Tante = aunt
Taufe = baptism
taufen = to baptize
Taufpaten = godparents
Taufschein = baptismal certificate
tausend = thousand
Testament = will
Thalberg = valley (and) mountain
Theiss/Theissen = form of Matthias
THEISSEN = TYSON
Tischler = cabinetmaker, furniture maker
Tochter = daughter
Töchterchen = young daughter
Töchterlein = young daughter
Tochtermann = son-in-law
Tod = death
Todesart = manner of death
Töpfer = potter
tot = dead
Totengräber = grave digger
totgeboren = stillborn
TRACHSEL = TROXELL
Traugott = trust in God
Trauung = marriage
Trennung = separation, divorce
Trommler = drummer
TSCHANTZ = JOHNS
tschechisch = Czech
Tschechoslowakai = Czechoslovakia
Tuberkulose = tuberculosis
Tuchmacher = cloth maker, draper
Tumor = tumor
über = about, concerning, over
u.d. = und des, und der = and of
Uhr = o’clock, clock, watch
um = at, about, around, concerning
unbekannt = unknown
und = and
und der = and of
und des = and of
unehelich = illegitimate
ungarisch = Hungarian
Ungarn = Hungary
ungefähr = about, circa, approximately
Unger = Hungarianuns  us
Unruh = agitator or trouble maker
unter = under, lower
Unterrichter = judge
Unterschrieben = signed
Unterschrift = signature
Unterzeichnete = the undersigned
unverheiratet = unmarried
Urenkelkind = great-grandchild
Urgroßmutter = great-grandmother
Urgroßvater = great-grandfather
Urkunde = record, document
Urner of Uri = (Swiss canton)
Ururgroßmutter = great-great-grandmother
Ururgroßvater = great-great-grandfather
ux. = uxor = wife
Vater = father
VEIT = FATE
verehelicht = married
Verehelichung = marriage
vergangen = past
vergraben = buried
verh. = verheiratet = married
Verkäufer = seller, vendor
verl. = verlobt = engaged
verlebte = deceased
verloben, sich = to become engaged
Verlobte = fiancée
Verlobter = fiancé
Verlobung = betrothal, engagement
Vermieter = landlord, lessor
Vermögen = estate, assets
Verpächter = landlord, lessor
verrichtet = performed
verschiedene = various
Verstopfung = constipation
verstorben = deceased, defunct
Verstorbene = the deceased
Verwaltung = administration
Verwandten = relatives
Verwandtschaft = relationship
verwitwet = widowed
Verzeichnis = register, list, index
Vetter = male cousin
vid. = viduus, vidua = widower, widow
vielleicht = perhaps, maybe
vier = four
vierte = fourth
vierundzwanzigste = twenty-fourth
vierzehn = fourteen
vierzehnte = fourteenth
vierzig = forty
vierzigste = fortieth
Vogel = bird
VOGEL = FOGEL, FOGLE
Vogler = fowler, bird man
Vo(i)gt = steward, overseer
VOGT = FOCHT
Volkszählung = census
volljährig = of age, of legal age
vollzogen = performed
VOLMAR = FULMER
von = of, from, by (indicates nobility)
vor = before; ago
vorherig = previous, preceding
vorheriger Tag = the previous day
vorläufig = for the time being
vormals = formerly
Vormittags = in the morning
Vormund = guardian
Vorname = given name
Vorstadt = suburbs, outskirts of town
Waechter = warden, watchman
Wagner = wagoner, wainwright, cartwright
Waise = orphan
Wald = forest, woods
WALTI = WELTY
wann = when
Wannemaker = basket maker
WANNEMACHER = WANAMAKER
Wappen = coat of arms
Wappenkunde = heraldry
war = was
waren = were
warum = why
was = what
Wassersucht = dropsy, edema
Weber = weaver
WEBER = WEAVER
Wechsler/Wexler = money changer
Weduwe = widow
wegen = because of
Wehmutter = midwife
WEIAND = WIANT, WYANT
Weib = wife, woman
weiblich = female
weiland = deceased
Weiland = the deceased
Weiler = hamlet
weiß = white / white appearance
Weiss = white/wheat
Weißgerber = tanner
Weissmuller = wheat miller
welche = which
wer = who
werden = to become
West = west
weyland = deceased
WIDMANN = WHITMAN
WIDMER = WHITMER, WITMER
wie = how
WILHELM = WILLIAM, WILLIAMS
Windpocken = chicken pox
Winkel = corner, angleWintermonat  November
Wirt(h)/Wirtz = innkeeper, landlord
WIRTZ = WERTS, WERTZ
Wittib = widow
Wittiber = widower
Witwe = widow
Witwer = widower
wo = where
Woche = week
Wochenbett = childbed
woher = from where
wohnen = to live, residing
Wohnort = place of residence
Wohnplatz = place of residence
Wohnung = domicile, residence
Wolf/Wulf = Wolf
wollen = to want
Wonnemonat = May
Wörterbuch = dictionary
wurde geboren = was born
wurde getauft = was baptized
Wurfel/Werfel = die, cube
würdig = worthy
Wwe. = Witwe  widow
Wwer. = Witwer  widower
Xber =(Xbris)  December
YOST = YODER
zählen = to count
Zahnkrämpfe = teething
Zahnung = teething
zehn = ten
Zehnt(en)buch = tithing book
zehnte = tenth
Zehnten = tithes
zehrendes Fieber = consumptive fever
Zehrung = consumption
Zeit = time
Zeuge = witness
Ziegler = brick or tile maker
Zimmermann = carpenter
Zivilstandsamt = civil registrar’s office
Zöllner = publican, tax collector
zu Hause = at home
ZUG = ZOOK
Zukunft = future
Zuname = surname, last name
ZURCHER = ZARCHER, ZERCHER, ZIRGER
zusammen = together
zwanzig = twenty
zwanzigste = twentieth
zwei = two
Zweig = twig, branch
zweihundert = two hundred
zweitausend = two thousand
zweite = second
zweiundzwanzigste = twenty-second
Zwilling(e) = twin, twins
zwischen = between
zwölf = twelve
Zwölfer = member of a council
zwölfte = twelfth
GERMAN NAMING PATTERNS

The first name of each Daughter was usually the first name of the Mother. The first name of the Son was usually the first name of the Father. Often times the middle name of each child was the name of the baby's baptismal sponsor and they were usually called by his/her middle name.

The earliest are the names derived from the place of dwelling and the location of the homestead. If a person or family migrated from one place to another, they were identified by the place they came from.

The largest group and the most easily recognizable names are those derived from the vocation or profession of the first bearer. They tell you what the first bearer did for a living.

There is one group in which the name derives from the first names of first bearer and another where the names come from a physical or other characteristic of first bearer.

Finally there are names which tell you the state or region from which a first bearer and his family came.

The age old division in tribes and regions (low German, middle German and upper German) is often reflected in names. But for non-German speakers they are at first hard to "localize, especially those on the Dutch border and Northern Germany which sound very much like Dutch or English names.

Furthermore, if you know a little German, you will be able to recognize names more easily; if you do not know German there are a number of clues to look for.

Neu is German for new: Neuman(n), Neuberger, Nieman(n), Nauman(n).

If a name ends in -mann, -burg, -berg, lich, -stein or t(h)al, it is a likely indication that the name is German. But in certain settlement areas, these endings could also refer to Swedish and Russian Jewish backgrounds.

There are German place names ending in -burg (castle), -bruck (bridge); -furt (ford), -berg (mountain), -reuth, -rode (clearing in woods).

God Parents and Nicknames

Godparenting was a very serious social responsibility, even to the extent of co-parenting to provide spiritual guidance, support and gifts for the child. Godparents also represented a social link between preferred families as well as using the individuals name for the child. As long as that child survived, the family could not call upon any other individual with the same name to serve as the godparent to subsequent children.

Around the 18th century the practice of assigning two or more names to a baby provided an alternative in circumventing this pledge. This practice of naming would frequently result in many people with very similar names so that many ´nick´ names were assigned in the village. The selection of godparents also provided the opportunity to forge preferred social or business relationships within the community

GERMAN  SPECIAL CHARACTERS

[And this doesn't refer to your spouse's distant relatives that showed up at the Family Reunion potluck! <grin>]

Did you ever wonder how to make the character "u" with an umlaut - - those two little dots above the u that you find in German handwriting? Well, there are special key combinations that are found on your keyboards of your computer. 

To produce the characters, you need to press and HOLD the ALT key (to the left/right of your space bar on your keyboard) and type the code on the number pad while continuing to hold the ALT key down.  When you let go of the ALT key, the character appears.

THE HOW & WHY:  In German research, you'll find these letters used in names like LÜDTKE.  When the name was "Americanized" you'll see it as LAEDTKE, LUEDTKE, LIEDTKE, etc.  These umlauts typically represent a vowel blend.

EXAMPLE: You want to use the a-umlaut, listed as ALT + 0228.  Depress the ALT key, and type in 0228 on the number pad, release the ALT key and PRESTO!
 

IBM COMPUTER
CHARACTER CODE/ KEY NAME
ä ALT + 0228 a - umlaut
ë ALT + 137 e - umlaut
ï ALT + 139 i - umlaut
ö ALT + 0246 o - umlaut
ü ALT + 0252 u - umlaut
ÿ ALT + 152 y - umlaut
Ä ALT + 0196 A - umlaut
Ë ALT + 0203 E - umlaut
Ï ALT + 0207 I - umlaut
Ö ALT + 0214 O - umlaut
Ü ALT + 0220 U - umlaut
ź ALT + 0159 Y - umlaut
ß ALT + 225 Esszet sharp s
MAC COMPUTER
CHARACTER CODE/ KEY NAME 
Ä option + u A  A with umlaut
ä option + u a  a with umlaut
Ë  option + u E E with umlaut
ë option + u e e with umlaut
Ï option + u I I with umlaut
ï option + u i i with umlaut
Ö option + u O O with umlaut
ö  option + u o o with umlaut
Ü option + u U U with umlaut
ü option + u u u with umlaut
ß option + s German ss
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